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Papers of the Week

2022 Aug 11


Neutrophil autophagy and NETosis in COVID-19: perspectives.


Zhang R, Sun C, Han Y, Huang L, Sheng H, Wang J, Zhang Y, Lai J, Yuan J, Chen X, Jiang C, Wu F, Wang J, Fan X, Wang J
Autophagy. 2022 Aug 11:1-10.
PMID: 35951555.


The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial losses worldwide in people's lives, health, and property. Currently, COVID-19 is still prominent worldwide without any specific drug treatment. The SARS-CoV-2 pathogen is the cause of various systemic diseases, mainly acute pneumonia. Within the pathological process, neutrophils are recruited to infected sites, especially in the lungs, for the first stage of removing invading SARS-CoV-2 through a range of mechanisms. Macroautophagy/autophagy, a conserved autodegradation process in neutrophils, plays a crucial role in the neutrophil phagocytosis of pathogens. NETosis refers to neutrophil cell death, while auto-inflammatory factors and antigens release NETs. This review summarizes the latest research progress and provides an in-depth explanation of the underlying mechanisms of autophagy and NETosis in COVID-19. Furthermore, after exploring the relationship between autophagy and NETosis, we discuss potential targets and treatment options. This review keeps up with the latest research on COVID-19 from neutrophil autophagy and NETosis with a new perspective, which can guide the urgent development of antiviral drugs and provide guidance for the clinical treatment of COVID-19. AKT1: AKT serine/threonine kinase 1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; AP: autophagosome; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; cfDNA: cell-free DNA; COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; CQ: chloroquine; DMVs: double-membrane vesicles; ELANE/NE: elastase, neutrophil expressed; F3: coagulation factor III, tissue factor; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain of 3; MPO: myeloperoxidase; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NETs: neutrophil traps; NSP: nonstructural protein; PI3K: class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SKP2: S-phase kinase associated protein 2; TCC: terminal complement complex; ULK1: unc-51 like.