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Front Neurol


Case report: Endovascular treatment of two scalp arteriovenous malformation cases direct percutaneous catheterization: A case series.



Scalp arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular malformations reported only in small case series. Scalp AVMs usually present with symptoms, including headache, tinnitus, epilepsy, cerebral ischemia, and necrosis of the scalp, which can cause functional, cosmetic, and psychological problems. There are many difficulties in the treatment of scalp AVM because of its complex characteristics of vascular anatomy, non-uniform structure, and intracranial-extracranial anastomosis.