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Papers of the Week

2022 Aug

Clin Case Rep



Simultaneous occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: A systematic review of cases.



Although the leading causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are aneurysm rupture and arteriovenous malformations, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) can, in rare cases, be associated with SAH. This phenomenon is an uncommon presentation, with less than a hundred cases reported based on our review of the literature. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known regarding these cases, how they are managed and to highlight the need for further studies that will serve as a basis for the development of a standard management guideline across board. The following databases were searched: PubMed and Ovid Embase. A complementary search of Google Scholar and AJOL was done. Gray literature search was also conducted on the Google search engine for any additional relevant papers. We were able to extract data regarding 33 cases from 29 identified studies. The mean age was 46.6 ± 14.08. 17 (51.5%) of the cases were female, and the female-to-male ratio is 1.1:1. Headache was by far the commonest symptom, occurring in 82% of cases followed by seizures in 42% of cases. Four patients (12%) had loss of consciousness while 5 patients (15%) had some form of focal neurologic deficit. Twenty patients had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in at least two different sinuses. The superior sagittal sinus was the most common location for CVSTs (79%), followed by the transverse sinus (57.5%). Twenty-nine cases (89%) were managed with anticoagulation alone and one case had a mechanical thrombectomy. We have performed a comprehensive review of cases that had the simultaneous occurrence of SAH and CVST and have identified their peculiarities and the challenges to management. Further research is needed in order to identify a causal relationship and to serve as a basis for the development of a standard management guideline across the board.