Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most important complications of peripartum neuraxial analgesia. Loss of cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure as well as compensatory intracranial vasodilation are assumed to be responsible. Potentially severe long-term sequelae necessitate the correct diagnosis of PDPH, exclusion of relevant differential diagnoses (with atypical symptoms and when indicated via imaging techniques) and rapid initiation of effective treatment. Nonopioid analgesics, caffeine and occasionally theophylline, gabapentin and hydrocortisone are the cornerstones of pharmacological treatment, while the timely placement of an autologous epidural blood patch (EBP) represents the gold standard procedure when symptoms persist despite the use of analgesics. Procedures using neural treatment are promising alternatives, especially when an EBP is not desired by the patient or is contraindicated. Interdisciplinary and interprofessional consensus standard procedures can contribute to optimization of the clinical management of this relevant complication.