The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in women with non-malignant chronic pain, and to determine whether women exposed to traumatic situations prior to the outbreak would be at a higher risk of negative health impacts. A total of 365 women were divided into three subgroups according to whether or not they had experienced a traumatic event prior to COVID-19. They completed an online survey. Significant differences were found between groups during lockdown: 1) more psychological abuse was experienced by the group of women who had experienced an interpersonal traumatic event prior to the pandemic than in the other subgroups; 2) physical activity levels were higher and scores on pain interference were lower in women in the non-traumatized subgroup than in the other subgroups; 3) pain interference was predicted by pain intensity, decreased social support, and resilience, whereas perceived well-being was predicted by pain interference. Women who had experienced a traumatic event prior to the pandemic suffered worse consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown, particularly greater pain interference, although resilience was shown to both mitigate pain interference and enhance perceived well-being.