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2022 Jul 30

Am J Case Rep


Atypical Splenic Abscesses Due to Clostridioides difficile.


Komeno Y, Iida T, Kocha A, Kadoma N, Ito K, Morito M, Kodama M, Abe K, Ijichi M, Ryu T
Am J Case Rep. 2022 Jul 30; 23:e936528.
PMID: 35906763.


BACKGROUND Splenic abscess is a rare infectious disease that occurs after bloodstream infection and trauma. It has become more common due to an increase in the number of immunocompromised patients. They typically present with round cystic lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a well-known cause of pseudomembranous colitis, but extraintestinal manifestations are very rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 9 cases of splenic abscess due to C. difficile have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT A 90-year-old man presented with weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed splenomegaly with irregular hypodense nodules. Image-guided biopsy or drainage was not performed for a technical reason. MRI showed atypical nodules with mixed high and low signals on both T1- and T2-weighted images, which were inconclusive. A laparoscopic splenectomy was performed, which resulted in partial removal due to severe adhesion of the spleen to the surrounding tissues. Cultures of splenic pus yielded C. difficile, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacteroides fragilis. Pathological examination of the spleen showed widespread abscesses with hemorrhage and necrosis, leading to the diagnosis of splenic abscesses. Intravenous administration of vancomycin, clindamycin or metronidazole was ineffective. He died of fatal arrhythmia 5 months after the initial diagnosis of splenic abscess. CONCLUSIONS Splenic abscess can present with atypical imaging findings owing to chronic inflammation, bleeding, and necrosis. Although polymicrobial, this is the tenth reported case of splenic abscess caused by C. difficile.