Pyroptosis is a programmed-inflammatory cell death, which leads to release of inflammatory cellular contents and formation of inflammation. Uncontrollable pyroptosis can result in serious immune diseases, such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and acute organ damage, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Members of the Callicarpa genus are significant raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine, widely used for analgesia, hemostasis, and anti-inflammation. Previously, we have reported some ent-clerodane diterpenoids from Callicarpa arborea, shown potent inhibitory effects against pyroptosis. In this study, we went on investigating this kind of diterpenoids, and yielded 66 ent-clerodane diterpenoids, including 52 new compounds, from Callicarpa arborea. Their structures featured with a 5/6- (1-25) or a 6/6- (26-66)-fused double-ring scaffolds, were elucidated using spectroscopic data, electrostatic circular dichroism (ECD) and X-ray diffraction analyses. Screening for the inhibitory activity against pyroptosis by detecting of IL-1β secretion in J771A.1 cells, revealed 28 compounds with an IC below 10.5 μM. Compound 1 was the most potent with an IC of 0.68 μM and inhibited the J774A.1 macrophage pyroptosis by blocking the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. An in vivo study further revealed that compound 1 decreased infiltration of CD11b + F4/80 + macrophages into lung and attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Taken together, this study indicated the potential of compound 1 as a candidate for pyroptosis-related inflammation treatment, as well as provided the chemical and pharmacological basis for the further development of Callicarpa genus as a herbal medicine.