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Papers of the Week

Papers: 30 Jul 2022 - 5 Aug 2022

2022 Jul 23

Sensors (Basel)



Comparison of Deep Learning Algorithms in Predicting Expert Assessments of Pain Scores during Surgical Operations Using Analgesia Nociception Index.


There are many surgical operations performed daily in operation rooms worldwide. Adequate anesthesia is needed during an operation. Besides hypnosis, adequate analgesia is critical to prevent autonomic reactions. Clinical experience and vital signs are usually used to adjust the dosage of analgesics. Analgesia nociception index (ANI), which ranges from 0 to 100, is derived from heart rate variability (HRV) via electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, for pain evaluation in a non-invasive manner. It represents parasympathetic activity. In this study, we compared the performance of multilayer perceptron (MLP) and long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithms in predicting expert assessment of pain score (EAPS) based on patient's HRV during surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze how deep learning models differed from the medical doctors' predictions of EAPS. As the input and output features of the deep learning models, the opposites of ANI and EAPS were used. This study included 80 patients who underwent operations at National Taiwan University Hospital. Using MLP and LSTM, a holdout method was first applied to 60 training patients, 10 validation patients, and 10 testing patients. As compared to the LSTM model, which had a testing mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.633 ± 0.542, the MLP model had a testing MAE of 2.490 ± 0.522, with a more appropriate shape of its prediction curves. The model based on MLP was selected as the best. Using MLP, a seven-fold cross validation method was then applied. The first fold had the lowest testing MAE of 2.460 ± 0.634, while the overall MAE for the seven-fold cross validation method was 2.848 ± 0.308. In conclusion, HRV analysis using MLP algorithm had a good correlation with EAPS; therefore, it can play role as a continuous monitor to predict intraoperative pain levels, to assist physicians in adjusting analgesic agent dosage. Further studies may consider obtaining more input features, such as photoplethysmography (PPG) and other kinds of continuous variable, to improve the prediction performance.