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Papers of the Week

2022 Mar

Asian J Neurosurg



Pituitary Apoplexy Following Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis, With Two Uncommon Complications of Supraventricular Tachycardia and Acute Limb Ischemia in a Patient with Neglected Pituitary Adenoma and Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus: A Rare Clinical Association


Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a clinical emergency arising from acute ischemia or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland. A small subset of pituitary adenomas present with an apoplectic crisis, with common symptoms being headache, nausea/vomiting, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, altered sensorium, panhypopituitarism, etc. Though diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an established complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, its association with PA is extremely rare. Likewise, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and acute limb ischemia (ALI) have rare, reported association with DKA. We present one such case of rare associations seen in our clinical practice. A 20-year-old woman was brought to our emergency room with headache, breathlessness, and altered sensorium. Clinical and biochemical evaluation revealed SVT, DKA, and right lower limb ALI. On enquiry, patient was found to be diagnosed with pituitary adenoma 2 years ago and lost to follow-up. PA was detected on neuroimaging and confirmed histopathologically. Possibility of PA presenting as DKA and its sequelae exists.