Some evidence indicates endometriosis and migraine have a common genetic predisposition in sex-hormone genes, which could have important implications for the treatment of these two heterogenous conditions. To date, the genes responsibility remains unknown. Based on the biological hypothesis that polymorphisms of genes involved in sex-hormone pathways may influence estrogen levels and phenotypes of both disorders, we did a literature search for candidate sex-hormone genes and genes involved in the metabolism of estradiol. The aim was to review the evidence for shared sex-hormone-related polymorphisms between endometriosis and migraine and provide an exhaustive overview of the current literature. We included case-control studies investigating associations between candidate sex-hormone-related genes and the disorders endometriosis and migraine, respectively. Results showed three overlapping sex-hormone-associated polymorphisms in estrogen receptor genes that are associated with both conditions. To confirm possible associations with other sex-hormone genes, larger studies are needed.