Different studies have confirmed P2X7 receptor-mediated inflammatory mediators play a key role in the development of pain. P2X7 receptor activation can induce the development of pain by mediating the release of inflammatory mediators. In view of the fact that P2X7 receptor is expressed in the nervous system and immune system, it is closely related to the stability and maintenance of the nervous system function. ATP activates P2X7 receptor, opens non-selective cation channels, activates multiple intracellular signaling, releases multiple inflammatory cytokines, and induces pain. At present, the role of P2X7 receptor in inflammatory response and pain has been widely recognized and affirmed. Therefore, in this paper, we discussed the pathological mechanism of P2X7 receptor-mediated inflammation and pain, focused on the internal relationship between P2X7 receptor and pain. Moreover, we also described the effects of some antagonists on pain relief by inhibiting the activities of P2X7 receptor. Thus, targeting to inhibit activation of P2X7 receptor is expected to become another potential target for the relief of pain.