Androgen insufficiency under treatment with opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants in chronic pain diseases is a side effect with a high prevalence. It can lead to clinical metabolic alterations, adynamia, stress intolerance, anemia or osteoporosis and has a significant impact on the quality of life. Opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of sex hormones. A urologist, andrologist or endocrinologist should be involved in the treatment at an early stage. The recommendation of a differential therapeutic selection of certain substances is only indicative and does not meet evidential criteria. The indications for androgen substitution must be individualized and in consideration of the risk-benefit profile. Awareness of this side effect of an otherwise lege artis medicinal pain therapy must be sharpened and compulsory included in the differential diagnostic considerations.