Esophageal motility disorders are diseases in which there are malfunctions of the act of swallowing due to a change in neuromuscular structures. The main symptom is therefore dysphagia for solid and/or liquid foods, often accompanied by symptoms such as chest pain, regurgitation, heartburn, and weight loss. Esophageal manometry is the gold standard in diagnostics. Endoscopy and radiology serve to exclude inflammatory or malignant changes. With the introduction of high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM), the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders has improved and led to a new classification with the Chicago Classification, which has been modified several times in the last decade, most recently in 2020 with the Chicago Classification v4.0. Compared to the previous version 3.0, there are some important changes that are presented based on the most important esophageal motility disorders in everyday clinical practice.