In this issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia, a series of articles focus on the elemental changes to anesthesia training and education. Kealey and Naik review the status of competency-based medical training, a method through which learners are deliberately observed for progression to mastery in clinical management. This is contrast to the assumption that trainees will presumably reach the same intended endpoint merely by spending a pre-specified amount of time in post-graduate residency training. The advantages and disadvantages of the competency-based approach are reviewed. Alam and Matava describe how education has also changed to incorporate digital technology by way of immersive simulation. They detail the use of virtual and augmented reality to offer trainees the opportunity to engage in clinical exercises that are infrequently encountered in real practice, increase the exposure to challenging scenarios and foster real-time collaborations on a global scale. An accompanying editorial offers further perspective on the future of training in our specialty. The reader is strongly encouraged to review the cited articles for an in-depth appreciation of the concepts discussed.