To review the research progress of pure opioid receptor agonist oxycodone. The research progress of oxycodone in terms of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse reactions, clinical application, combined medication and new progress in clinical application was summarized by referring to the literature. Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic thebaine derivative of opioid alkaloids, and is a pure opioid μ and κ receptor agonist. The main action sites are the central nervous system and visceral smooth muscle. Due to its advantages of low adverse reactions, good analgesic effects, and a wide range of safe doses, the drug has been widely used in the control of acute and chronic postoperative pain, as well as malignant and non-malignant pain. Since the end of the 20 century, researchers have begun to formulate antipyretic analgesics, opioid receptor agonists, opioid receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists and other drugs with oxycodone in different proportions to enhance the analgesic effect. At the same time, it can reduce the dosage of oxycodone and reduce its adverse reactions, so as to achieve the purpose of limiting opioid abuse. With the continuous research on the efficacy and safety of oxycodone in the perioperative period at home and abroad, oxycodone has become the only dual-opioid potent analgesic that can be used in clinical work.