I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2022 May-Aug

Case Rep Gastroenterol



Ischemic Hepatitis Induced by Uremic Cardiac Tamponade in a Patient with Underlying Hepatitis C with a Review of the Literature.


Alsultan M K, Bakr A, Hassan Q
Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2022 May-Aug; 16(2):326-332.
PMID: 35814798.


Ischemic hepatitis is a rare cause of acute liver injury (ALI) and is associated with various etiologies including cardiac failure, trauma, hemorrhage, and respiratory failure that all result in poor perfusion and oxygen delivery to the liver. A 30-year-old patient complained of orthopnea with a history of hepatitis C treatment and is currently on hemodialysis (HD) due to chronic allograft rejection. Also, he had previous pericardial effusion (PEFF) due to inadequate dialysis. Laboratory tests on admission revealed urinary tract infection, HCV PCR positive, and high blood urea nitrogen. Computed tomography of the chest showed massive PEFF. Echocardiography revealed a massive PEFF that measured 3.6 cm on the apical four-chamber window, and the inferior vena cava diameter was 27 mm with a decreased collapsibility of ˂20% in inspiration. The patient was treated for UTI and started the treatment for HCV. Also, increased HD sessions with minimal heparinization of the dialyzer circuit were obtained along with daily monitoring of PEFF by echocardiography. At first, echocardiography did not reveal frank signs of cardiac tamponade, but after 2 sessions of HD, the patient developed chest pain, worsening orthopnea, JVP elevation, and dropping of the systolic BP. Echocardiography showed specific signs of cardiac tamponade, which included an increased effusion to 4.4 cm and changes in velocities of the mitral valve and tricuspid valve during the respiratory cycle by more than 25% and 40%, respectively. The patient was transmitted to ICU, and pericardiocentesis was obtained. Two days later, asymptomatic ALI was noticed by elevation of the following tests: ALT, AST, LDH, PT, and INR. However, ALI exhibits a rapid and spontaneous resolution to nearly normal tests after 10 days. Although the patient was hemodynamically stable, the liver injury occurred and might be attributed to ESRD and hypertension that caused thickened heart walls, diastolic dysfunction, and subsequently hepatic congestion, in addition to previous liver injury due to HCV. We present a rare case of ALI caused by uremic pericardial tamponade with an overview of the current literature with regard to this entity. So, we emphasize monitoring liver function tests in the context of PEFF, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease.