is an endemic tree of Brazil, occurring mainly in the northeast region in the Cerrado environment. The species, popularly known as "pequi", produces fruits that are used in the manufacture of oil for food and medicinal purposes. This work reviewed studies conducted with the species, highlighting its ethnomedicinal use, its pharmacological potential, including its chemical constituents, and its cultural and socioeconomic importance. Information was obtained through the main scientific research platforms. The keyword "" was used as the main index for searching the following platforms: PubMed, PubMed Central, SciElo, Scopus and Web of Science. The compiled papers demonstrate that has great medicinal, economic and cultural importance for northeastern Brazil. Popularly, the fruits of are used to treat broncho-pulmonary diseases (bronchitis, colds and flu). The fixed oil is widely used to relieve pain from various causes in the treatment of inflammation, flu, eczema, burns, fever, rickets, indigestion, heart murmurs, fatigue and erectile dysfunction. Some of these uses are corroborated by pharmacological trials, which have demonstrated the antioxidant, healing, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the species. Chemically, fatty acids and phenolic compounds are the main constituents recorded for the species. Due to its medicinal properties, the fruits and oil of have a high commercial demand and are one of the main forms of subsistence activities for local populations. On the other hand, the extractive practice of the fruits, associated with anthropic factors and its physiological nature, makes the species threatened with extinction. Thus, public management policies are highly necessary in order to avoid its extinction.