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Papers of the Week

2022 Sep

Radiol Case Rep



Temporal superficial arteritis as differential diagnosis in patients with atherosclerotic changes due to advanced chronic renal disease: case report and review of the literature.


Giant cell arteritis is an autoimmune disease that affects medium and large caliber vessels, creating deposits of inflammatory clusters on the arterial wall. It is the most common form of large vessel vasculitis, but given the variability of biopsy efficiency and of other diagnostic strategies employed, the diagnosis of this disease is challenging. We report the case of a 69-year-old female patient who presented with neurological deficit and increased bilateral sensation in the temporal region associated with excruciating headache. Workup revealed calcification of the superficial temporal, vertebral and ophthalmic arteries, as well as suggestive findings on Doppler ultrasound such as the halo sign, pointing to superficial temporal arteritis though not excluding the possibility of those calcifications being consistent with atherosclerosis in a patient with advanced chronic renal disease, which has been reported as giving rise to false-positive results. Knowledge of the main differences between the 2 diagnoses is important, given the wide range of diagnostic imaging possibilities which can avoid the need for biopsy.