The underlying mechanisms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) remain unclear. Herein, we found that the protein expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) was significantly increased in the right but not in the left laterocapsular division of central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC) in OIH rats. In CeLC neurons, the frequency and the amplitude of mini-excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were significantly increased in fentanyl group which were decreased by acute application of a mGluR1 antagonist, A841720. Finally, the behavioral hypersensitivity could be reversed by A841720 microinjection into the right CeLC. These results show that the right CeLC mGluR1 is an important factor associated with OIH that enhances synaptic transmission and could be a potential drug target to alleviate fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia.