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Papers of the Week

2022 May




A Case of Leishmaniasis Infantum Kala-Azar in an Immunocompetent 49-Year-Old Man.


Williams C, Bass J, Singh A, Diemer K
Cureus. 2022 May; 14(5):e25442.
PMID: 35774655.


An immunocompetent 45-year-old Cuban-American man presented with worsening knee pain and swelling despite antibiotic therapy. On physical examination, the patient was ill-appearing, cachectic, with a protuberant abdomen and massive splenomegaly. In addition, he had a 10 cm area of peripheral hyperemia with central necrosis in the medial left knee that was non-tender and non-fluctuant. Initial lab work demonstrated pancytopenia, hyponatremia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia of chronic inflammation. Peripheral smear showed microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells with mild anisopoikilocytosis. and leukopenia with slight left shift and metamyelocytes. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated amastigotes and kinetoplasts within white blood cells and extracellular space consistent with leishmaniasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) testing with PCR returned positive for . The patient received two courses of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) with a 28-day course of miltefosine, which resulted in clinical improvement. This case illustrates the unique pathology that can affect immigrants and highlights the need to increase health provider awareness of foreign pathologies in areas with large migrant populations.