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Papers of the Week

2022 Jun 27

Am J Case Rep


Bilateral Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Associated with COVID Pneumonia: A Case Report.


Savić S, Pejović T, Savić N
Am J Case Rep. 2022 Jun 27; 23:e936370.
PMID: 35759427.


BACKGROUND 0ptviral pneumonia and bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis create a rapid acute respiratory distress syndrome. CASE REPORT A 59-year-old diabetic man with altered awareness was admitted as an emergency due to fever, shivering, and pain in the lap. Based on the accurate diagnosis, we concluded that the patient had bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis, as well as inflammatory changes in the lung parenchyma caused by coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2). Active therapy – nephrectomy – was ruled out due to the late detection of the gas collection in the kidneys, as well as the general condition caused by respiratory symptoms. With symptomatic, supportive, and antimicrobial therapy, such as percutaneous renal drainage, renal abnormalities improved. Unfortunately, the virus-induced parenchymal inflammation progressed and proved fatal. The inflammatory process in the urothelial cell is most likely where the linkage and potentiation of COVID-19 infection and emphysematous pyelonephritis begins. Local inflammation that obstructs the movement of the generated gas is one of the hypothesized processes of emphysematous pyelonephritis. The renal and urothelial tubular cells contain the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor, which is used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter human cells and may be a risk factor for simultaneous and direct viral injury to urinary tract cells. Sepsis was most likely caused by viral pneumonia, based on the resolution of changes in the kidneys. CONCLUSIONS The combination of EPN and COVID-19 is difficult to treat. Despite multidisciplinary treatment, it has been linked to a worse prognosis and fatal outcome.