Worldwide, the prevalence of surgery under general anesthesia has significantly increased, both because of modern anesthetic and pain-control techniques and because of better diagnosis and the increased complexity of surgical techniques. Apart from developing new concepts in the surgical field, researchers and clinicians are now working on minimizing the impact of surgical trauma and offering minimal invasive procedures due to the recent discoveries in the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms that have revealed a systemic inflammatory and pro-oxidative impact not only in the perioperative period but also in the long term, contributing to more difficult recovery, increased morbidity and mortality, and a negative financial impact. Detailed molecular and cellular analysis has shown an overproduction of inflammatory and pro-oxidative species, responsible for augmenting the systemic inflammatory status and making postoperative recovery more difficult. Moreover, there are a series of changes in certain epigenetic structures, the most important being the microRNAs. This review describes the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms that impact the surgical patient undergoing general anesthesia, and it presents a series of antioxidant therapies that can reduce systemic inflammation.