The world is grappling with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the causative agent of which is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 symptoms are similar to the common cold, including fever, sore throat, cough, muscle and chest pain, brain fog, dyspnoea, anosmia, ageusia, and headache. The manifestation of the disease can vary from being asymptomatic to severe life-threatening conditions warranting hospitalization and ventilation support. Furthermore, the emergence of mutecated variants of concern (VOCs) is paramount to the devastating effect of the pandemic. This highly contagious virus and its emergent variants challenge the available advanced viral diagnostic methods for high-accuracy testing with faster result yields. This review is to shed light on the natural history, pathology, molecular biology, and efficient diagnostic methods of COVID-19, detecting SARS-CoV-2 in collected samples. We reviewed the gold standard RT-qPCR method for COVID-19 diagnosis to confer a better understanding and application to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. This comprehensive review may further develop awareness about the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.