Electroacupuncture (EA) has benefits for neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. The current study explores the underlying mechanisms of EA in neuropathic pain of chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. . Overall, 126 Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) rats were divided into nine groups randomly: the sham-operated, CCI, CCI+EA, CCI+sham EA, CCI+NS, CCI+AAV-NC, CCI+AAV-miR-206-3p, CCI+EA+NS, and CCI+EA+AAV-miR-206-3p groups. The animals were sacrificed 14 days postsurgery. Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) tests were used to determine differences in neurobehavioral manifestations. qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence (IF) were carried out to detect the expression levels of miR-206-3p, BDNF, BAX/Bcl-2, TNF-, and IL-6. Nissl staining was measured to observe morphological changes in neurons. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to evaluate microscopic changes in dorsal horn synapses.