Mutations in the peroxisomal half-transporter ABCD1 cause X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, resulting in elevated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), progressive neurodegeneration and an associated pain syndrome that is poorly understood. In the nervous system of mice, we found ABCD1 expression to be highest in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), with satellite glial cells (SGCs) displaying higher expression than neurons. We subsequently examined sensory behavior and DRG pathophysiology in mice deficient in ABCD1 compared to wild-type mice. Beginning at 8 months of age, mice developed persistent mechanical allodynia. DRG had a greater number of IB4-positive nociceptive neurons expressing PIEZO2, the mechanosensitive ion channel. Blocking PIEZO2 partially rescued the mechanical allodynia. Beyond affecting neurons, ABCD1 deficiency impacted SGCs, as demonstrated by high levels of VLCFA, increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as genes disrupting neuron-SGC connectivity. These findings suggest that lack of the peroxisomal half-transporter ABCD1 leads to PIEZO2-mediated mechanical allodynia as well as SGC dysfunction. Given the known supportive role of SGCs to neurons, this elucidates a novel mechanism underlying pain in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.