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Papers of the Week

2022 May 26




Diclofenac Diminished the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Induced by Tunicamycin in Human Endothelial Cells.


Sokołowska P, Siatkowska M, Jóźwiak-Bębenista M, Komorowski P, Koptas M, Kowalczyk E, Wiktorowska-Owczarek A
Molecules. 2022 May 26; 27(11).
PMID: 35684385.


Diclofenac belongs to the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs to treat fever, pain and inflammation. Despite the presence of NSAIDs on the pharmaceutical market for several decades, epidemiological studies have shown new clinical applications of NSAIDs, and new mechanisms of their action were discovered. The unfolded protein response (UPR) activated under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases and may become a drug target, therefore, the study evaluated the effects of diclofenac on the tunicamycin-induced UPR pathways in endothelial cells. RT PCR analysis showed that diclofenac significantly inhibited activation of ER stress-responsive genes, i.e., CHOP/DITT3, GRP78/HSPA5 and DNAJB9. Additionally, the drug diminished the significant upregulation and release of the GRP78 protein, as evaluated using the ELISA assay, which was likely to be involved in the mechanism of the UPR activation resulting in apoptosis induction in endothelial cells. These results suggest the value of diclofenac as a factor capable of restoring the ER homeostasis in endothelial cells by diminishing the UPR.