Cold sensation is initiated in the periphery by a specialized population of cold-sensitive neurons, referred to as cold receptors, who transmit decreases in temperature with sub-degree resolution using a diverse assortment of ion channels and receptors. It is largely accepted that normal cold signaling is initiated through activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expressing neurons. Conversely, the mechanisms underlying cold-induced pain signaling are not as well defined. Interestingly, mounting evidence demonstrates functional interplay between cold signaling and other somatic sensations, such as itch and warmth; thus, cold-sensing pathways also engage in sensory crosstalk and population coding mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of cold sensation and address major gaps in knowledge that require more investigation.