Neuronal progranulin (PGRN) overexpression is an endogenous adaptive pain defense following nerve injury. It allows the survival of injured neurons to block enhanced nociceptive responses. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is widely used by cardiac patients as an anti-anginal drug, reflecting its anti-ischemic property. TMZ promotes axonal regeneration of sciatic nerves after crush injury. This study explored the interplay between PGRN and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) to address mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain alleviation following paclitaxel (PTX) administration. Rats were given four injections of PTX (2 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day. Two days after the last dose, rats received TMZ (25 mg/kg) with or without the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, daily for 21 days. TMZ preserved the integrity of myelinated nerve fibers, as evidenced by an obvious reduction in axonal damage biomarkers. Accordingly, it alleviated PTX-evoked thermal, cold, and mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia. TMZ also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation with a profound upsurge in PGRN content. These effects were associated with a substantial increase in Notch1 receptor gene expression and a prominent anti-inflammatory effect with a marked increase in mRNA expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Further, TMZ decreased oxidative stress and caspase-3 activity in the sciatic nerve. Conversely, co-administration of PD98059 completely abolished these beneficial effects. Thus, the robust antinociceptive effect of TMZ is largely attributed to upregulating PGRN and Notch1 receptors via ERK1/2 activation.