Bidirectional interaction between the brain and the peripheral organs plays a key role in homeostasis in the body. Abnormalities in brain-body communication potentially leads to a number of brain diseases, including psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, dysbiosis of gut microbiota and altered levels of microbes-derived compounds plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, depression is the most common psychiatric symptom in patients with physical disorders, including pain and cardiovascular diseases. This special issue brings together current information on the brain-body communication in health and diseases.