Rehabilitation in osteoarthritis (OA) patients aims to reduce joint pain and stiffness, preserve or improve joint mobility, and improve patients' quality of life. This study evaluated the effects of the 21-day individually adjusted general rehabilitation program in 36 OA patients 90 days after hip or knee replacement on selected interleukins (IL) and cytokines using the Bio-Plex Luminex system. Serum concentrations of almost all selected anti/pro-inflammatory markers: IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, and of some chemokines: macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α/CCL3), and RANTES/CCL5, and of eotaxin-1/CCL11, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly increased, whereas basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF basic) significantly decreased after the 21-day general rehabilitation. The levels of interferon-γ induced protein 10 (IP-10), MIP-1β/CCL4, macrophage/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 (MCAF)), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) remained unchanged. There were no changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IL-12 (p70)) after the 21-day general rehabilitation, indicating the stable and controlled inflammatory status of osteoarthritis patients. Significantly higher levels of anti-inflammatory factors after 21 days of moderate physical activity confirm the beneficial outcome of the applied therapy. The increased level of IL-6 after the rehabilitation may reflect its anti-inflammatory effect in osteoarthritis patients.