Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe type of facial pain. A neurovascular conflict between cranial nerve V and a nearby vessel is the main pathophysiological mechanism, but additional factors are likely necessary to elicit TN. In this study, the primary aim was to explore differences in protein expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TN patients in relation to controls. Sixteen TN patients treated with microvascular decompression and 16 control patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for urological conditions were included. Lumbar CSF was collected preoperatively for the TN patients and before spinal anesthesia for the controls. A multiplexed proximity extension analysis of 91 CSF proteins was conducted using Proseek Multiplex Development 96, including biomarkers of cell communication, cell death, neurogenesis, and inflammation The TN patients and the controls were of similar age, sex, and burden of co-morbidities. The TN patients exhibited higher concentrations of Clec11a, LGMN, MFG-E8, and ANGPTL-4 in CSF than the controls (q < 0.05). TN patients exhibited increased CSF biomarkers indicative of peripheral demyelinating injury (Clec11a), immune tolerance and destruction of myelin (LGMN), neuronal cell death (MFG-E8), and disturbances in myelin clearance (ANGPTL-8). Our findings are hypothesis-generating for candidate biomarkers and pathophysiological processes in classical TN.