Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by relapsing eczematous injuries and severe pruritus. In the last few years, the AD prevalence has been increasing, reaching 20% in children and 10% in adults in high-income countries. Recently, the potential role of probiotics in AD prevention has generated considerable interest. As many clinical studies show, the gut microbiota is able to modulate systemic inflammatory and immune responses influencing the development of sensitization and allergy. Probiotics are used increasingly against AD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the probiotics mediated anti-allergic effect remain unclear and there is controversy about their efficacy. In this narrative review, we examine the actual evidence on the effect of probiotic supplementation for AD prevention in the pediatric population, discussing also the potential biological mechanisms of action in this regard.