Ectopic endometrial epithelium associates a wide spectrum of symptomatology. Their evolution can be influenced by inflammatory and vascular changes, that affect not only the structure and cell proliferation rate, but also symptoms. This prospective study involved tissue samples from surgically treated patients, stained using classical histotechniques and immunohistochemistry. We assessed ectopic endometrial glands (CK7+, CK20-), adjacent blood vessels (CD34+), estrogen/progesterone hormone receptors (ER+, PR+), inflammatory cells (CD3+, CD20+, CD68+, Tryptase+), rate of inflammatory cells (Ki67+) and oncoproteins (BCL2+, PTEN+, p53+) involved in the development of endometriosis/adenomyosis. A CK7+/CK20- expression profile was present in the ectopic epithelium and differentiated it from digestive metastases. ER+/PR+ were present in all cases analyzed. We found an increased vascularity (CD34+) in the areas with abdominal endometriosis and CD3+-:T-lymphocytes, CD20+-:B-lymphocytes, CD68+:macrophages, and Tryptase+: mastocytes were abundant, especially in cases with adenomyosis as a marker of proinflammatory microenvironment. In addition, we found a significantly higher division index-(Ki67+) in the areas with adenomyosis, and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes-p53+ in areas with neoplastic changes. The inflammatory/vascular/hormonal mechanisms trigger endometriosis progression and neoplastic changes increasing local pain. Furthermore, they may represent future therapeutic targets. Simultaneous-multiple immunohistochemical labelling represents a valuable technique for rapidly detecting cellular features that facilitate comparative analysis of the studied predictors.