The aims of this study were (1) to compare the levels and interactions of several plasma proteins in patients with myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMDM) compared to healthy and pain-free controls, (2) to compare the levels and interactions in two TMDM subgroups, myalgia (MYA) and myofascial pain (MFP), and (3) to explore associations between the proteins and clinical data. Thirty-nine patients with TMDM (MFP, = 25, MYA, = 14), diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD), aged 38 years, and sex-matched pain-free controls completed an extended DC/TMD Axis II questionnaire and the plasma concentration of 87 biomarkers were analyzed. Nine proteins separated TMDM from controls ( = 0.0174) and 12 proteins separated MYA from MFP ( = 0.019). Pain duration, characteristic pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, perceived stress, and insomnia severity were significantly associated with protein markers ( < 0.001 to < 0.022). In conclusion, several plasma proteins were upregulated in TMDM and either upregulated or downregulated in MYA compared to MFP. Some proteins in TMDM were associated with pain variables, sleep disturbance, and emotional function. These results show that systemic differences in protein expression exist in patients with TMDM and that altered levels of specific plasma proteins are associated with different clinical variables.