Rhamnocitrin (RH) is a bioactive flavonoid of Astragali Radix, which exerts a wide variety of pharmacological effects. However, there are no reports focusing on the therapeutical effects and mechanisms of RH against neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, systematic pharmacology and in vivo experimental approaches were employed to identify the potential targets of RH for treating oxaliplatin-induced NP. Our findings indicated that the therapeutical effect of RH might be closely associated with key genes, including MAPK3, MAPK1, SRC, PTGS2, EGFR, MMP9, and MMP2, as well as potential signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, and Rap1 signaling pathway. The in vivo experimental findings demonstrated that RH could suppress oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and down-regulate MMP2 and MMP9 expressions to exert its therapeutic effects against NP. This study used network pharmacology and experimental validation to elucidate the potential targets and underlying mechanisms by which RH improves oxaliplatin-induced NP and offer new insight on drug development for NP.