The effect of moderate neonatal stress induced by inflammatory pain in rat pups of both sexes on the hormonal response and cognitive processes in adult animals was studied in the Morris water maze. No significant differences in spatial learning and memory were found in experimental rats exposed to neonatal inflammatory pain vs. control animals. However, experimental rats exhibited sex differences in long-term spatial memory whose efficiency was higher in males vs. females. After long-term memory testing, stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, as assessed by the plasma corticosterone level in the formalin test, was higher in experimental males vs. females. Only experimental females exhibited differences between short-term and long-term memory, with the efficiency being higher in the former. Thus, sexual dimorphism was found in the effect of neonatal nociceptive stress on long-term spatial memory in adult rats: experimental males vs. females demonstrated more effective long-term memory combined with a higher stress reactivity of the hormonal response.