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Papers of the Week

Papers: 14 May 2022 - 20 May 2022

Animal Studies

2022 May 16

Int J Pharm

Superiority of Microemulsion-based Hydrogel for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Transdermal Delivery: A Comparative Safety and Anti-nociceptive Efficacy Study.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent the foundation of pain management caused by inflammatory disorders. Nevertheless, their oral administration induces several side effects exemplified by gastric ulceration, thus, delivering NSAIDs via the skin has become an attractive alternative. Herein, microemulsion-based hydrogel (MBH), proliposomal, and cubosomal gels were fabricated, loaded with diclofenac, and physicochemically characterized. The sizes, charges, surface morphologies, and the state of diclofenac within the reconstituted gels were also addressed. The release pattern and ex-vivo permeation studies using Franz cells were performed via the rat abdominal skin. The formulations were assessed in-vivo on mice skin for their irritation effect and their anti-nociceptive efficacy through the tail-flick test. Biosafety study of the optimal gel was also pointed out. The gels and their dispersion forms displayed accepted physicochemical properties. Diclofenac released in a prolonged manner from the prepared gels. MBH revealed a significantly higher skin permeation and the foremost results regarding in-vivo assessment where no skin irritation or altered histopathological features were observed. MBH further induced a significant anti-nociceptive effect during the tail-flick test with a lower tendency to evoke systemic toxicity. Therefore, limonene-containing microemulsion hydrogel is a promising lipid-based vehicle to treat pain with superior safety and therapeutic efficacy.