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2022 Apr




Comorbidities and Symptomatology of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2)-Related Myocarditis and SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Related Myocarditis: A Review.



Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle, with manifestations that include myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and even sudden death. The primary etiology of myocarditis is a viral infection, with studies demonstrating that infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to myocarditis. This enzyme is involved in many body tissues, including the gastrointestinal system and the cardiac system. This enzyme is responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system of our body. This review aims to characterize the symptomatology and comorbidities of males, females, and pediatric patients who developed the SARS-CoV-2-related myocarditis (SARS-CoV-2RM) or the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related myocarditis (SARS-CoV-2VRM). From July 10 to July 20, 2021, a PubMed database search for "SARS CoV-2 Related Myocarditis" was conducted. From July 21 to July 30 2021, the search for "SARS CoV-2 Vaccine Related Myocarditis" was conducted. The search completed was specific for title/abstract fields using keywords "Covid-19" AND "Myocarditis" AND "Vaccine" and specifying "Males" or "Females", respectively. Inclusion criteria included articles discussing comorbidities and symptomatology. Exclusion criteria included autopsy/postmortem reports, letters to the editor, retrospective studies, and observational studies. In the end, 49 articles were found and included in this review. We found that 27 of 40 pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2RM presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 12 of 40 pediatric patients had no comorbidities. In female cases, eight of 12 patients with SARS-CoV-2RM presented with noncardiac symptoms, and only four of 12 had comorbidities such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. In male patients with SARS-CoV-2RM, 10 of 12 presented with respiratory and/or cardiac symptoms, and seven of 12 had cardiac and/or diabetic comorbidities. Furthermore, 22 of 31 male patients with SARS-CoV-2VRM presented with chest pain with no previous comorbidities; four of six females with SARS-CoV-2VRM presented with chest pain, and three of six females had no comorbidities; and seven of 11 pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2VRM had no comorbidities, but 11 of 11 pediatric patients presented with chest pain. In conclusion, males, females, and pediatric patients with previous SARS-CoV-2VRM showed mostly chest pain with no comorbidities. Males presenting with SARS-CoV-2RM showed mostly respiratory and cardiac symptoms with cardiac and diabetic comorbidities. Females with SARS-CoV-2RM described various symptoms from flu-like, respiratory, to cardiac and had no previous comorbidities. The bulk of pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2RM mainly presented with GI symptoms and no past comorbidities. More studies are needed to determine the clinical presentation and risk factors that lead to SARS-CoV-2RM and SARS-CoV-2VRM.