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Front Vet Sci


The Equine Temporomandibular Joint: Comparisons Between Standard and Needle Arthroscopic Examination of Cadaver Specimens and Standing Horses.


Definitive diagnosis of equine temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) may require advanced diagnostic imaging. Arthroscopy is a modern, minimally invasive, diagnostic, and treatment modality. Standing arthroscopic treatment of joint disease is a relatively recent advance in equine surgery, despite which there are few published comparisons between the available arthroscopic systems.