More than 10% of American adults experience some level of daily pain, and nearly 40 million (17.6%) experience episodes of severe pain annually. Women are particularly impacted by both episodic and chronic pain with higher prevalence and a greater level of pain-related disability compared to men. Midlife is a critical period for women during which the frequency of pain complaints begins to increase. Although pain is known to be influenced and controlled by sex hormones, it has not been widely recognized as a symptom of the menopausal transition outside of the menopause research community. The recent thematic series in this journal has specifically highlighted pain related conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, migraine and abdominal pain for which the significance among midlife women is not typically recognized. The studies presented in this thematic series present a small fraction of relevant, understudied questions regarding pain and its impact on women in midlife. Addressing the gaps in knowledge will require longitudinal studies that consider the emergence of pain symptomatology in relation to midlife trajectories of other symptoms and health determinants, as well as further study of new and emerging therapies.