The role of spinal glia in the development and maintenance of chronic pain has become over the last years a subject of increasing interest. In this regard, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has been proposed as a major trigger mechanism. Hence, in this study we explored the implications of TLR4 inhibition in the periphery and primarily in the CNS, focusing on the impact this inhibition renders in pain development and glia activation in the dorsal horn in two models of pain. Making use of a synthetic cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)/TLR4 antagonist, the effect of TLR4 blockade on tactile allodynia and heat hyperalgesia was evaluated in osteoarthritic and postoperative rat models. An in vitro parallel artificial membrane permeation assay was performed to determine the proneness of the drug to permeate the blood-brain barrier prior to systemic and central administration. Findings suggest a dominant role of peripheral TLR4 in the model of incisional pain, whilst both peripheral and central TLR4 seem to be responsible for osteoarthritic pain. That is, central and peripheral TLR4 may be differently involved in the etiopathology of diverse types of pain what potentially seems a promising approach in the management of pain.