Sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, is used when extremely preterm neonates (EPT) undergo painful procedures. Currently, no existing studies analyze sevoflurane's long-term effects during the EPT's immediate neonatal period. Our primary objective was to compare the EPT's neurocognitive development regardless of any sevoflurane exposure prior to 45 weeks corrected gestational age (GA). We analyzed those live discharges, less than 28 weeks GA, who were either exposed, unexposed, and/or multiply exposed to sevoflurane before 45 weeks GA. All data were obtained from a cross-sectional multicenter study (GPQoL study, NCT01675726). Children, both exposed and non-exposed to sevoflurane, were sampled using a propensity-guided approach. Neurological examinations (Touwen), cognitive and executive functions (WISC IV, NEPSY, Rey figure), and assessments when the children were between 7 and 10 years old, were correlated to their neonatal sevoflurane exposure. There were 139 children in the study. The mean gestational age was 26.2 weeks (±0.8) GA and the mean birth weight was 898 g (±173). The mean age of their evaluation was 8.47 years old (±0.70). Exposure to sevoflurane to the mean corrected age 27.10 (3.37) weeks GA had a significant correlation with cerebral palsy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 6.70 (CI 95%: 1.84-32.11)) and other major disorders (cerebral palsy and/or severe cognitive retardation) (aOR: 2.81 [95% CI: 1.13-7.35]). Our results demonstrate the possibility of long-term effects on EPT infants who had a sevoflurane exposure before 45 weeks corrected GA. However, these results will require further confirmation by randomized controlled trials.