Migraine is a major neurological disorder affecting one in nine adults worldwide with a significant impact on health care and socioeconomic systems. Migraine is more prevalent in women than in men, with 17% of all women meeting the diagnostic criteria for migraine. In women, the frequency of migraine attacks shows variations over the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, and the use of combined hormonal contraception (CHC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can unveil or modify migraine disease. In the general population, 18-25% of female migraineurs display a menstrual association of their headache. Here we present an overview on the evidence supporting the role of reproductive hormones, in particular estrogens, in the pathophysiology of migraine. We also analyze the efficacy and safety of prescribing exogenous estrogens as a potential treatment for menstrual-related migraine. Finally, we point to controversial issues and future research areas in the field of reproductive hormones and migraine.