Surgery for chronic pancreatitis (CP) is considered as a last resort treatment. The present study aims to determine the short- and medium-term outcomes of surgical treatment for CP with a comparison between duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). The trends in surgical procedures were also examined. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgery for CP between 2000 and 2019 at the Karolinska University Hospital. One hundred and sixty-two patients were included. Surgery performed included drainage procedures ( = 2), DPPHR ( = 35), resections ( = 114, of these PD in = 65) and other procedures ( = 11). Morbidity occurred in 17%, and the 90-day mortality was 1%. Complete or partial pain relief was achieved in 65% of patients. No significant difference in morbidity was observed between the DPPHR and PD groups: 17% vs. 20% ( = 0.728). Pain relief did not differ between the groups (62% for DPPHR vs. 73% for PD, = 0.142). The frequency of performed DPPHR decreased, whereas the rate of PD remained unaltered. Surgical treatment for CP is safe and effective. DPPHR and PD are comparable regarding post-operative morbidity and are equally effective in achieving pain relief. Trends over time revealed PD as more commonly performed compared to DPPHR.