Primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare disease with low malignancy, and its aetiology is unclear. A 65-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Hepatitis virus examination revealed a previous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and a carbon-13 urea breath test result was positive for the patient. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a patch of abnormal density in the right posterior lobe of the liver. The patient underwent VI segment hepatectomy and was pathologically diagnosed with hepatic MALT lymphoma. After the operation, he received quadruple anti-Helicobacter pylori (HP) therapy and refused other treatments. He has been followed up by telephone for 20 months after discharge and is now in a stable condition. In this study, we counted 105 cases of hepatic MALT lymphomas reported in English or Chinese since 1995 and summarised the clinical characteristics and concomitant diseases in this condition. Based on the literature review, we speculated that chronic infectious diseases, especially viral infections (including hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV) and HP infection, are associated with the pathogenesis of primary hepatic MALT lymphoma. In addition, autoimmune diseases might also play a role in this condition.