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Surg Neurol Int


Rare case of migration and perforation of the urinary bladder by ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter with intravesical knotted formation: A case report and literature review.


The most commonly used technique in the management of hydrocephalus is a neurosurgical procedure, known as ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Several complications of the distal end of a VPS catheter have been described in the literature, although migration and erosive bladder perforation of this shunt are extremely uncommon.