I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2022 Apr 11

Am J Trop Med Hyg

Co-circulation of Chikungunya Virus during the 2015-2017 Zika Virus Outbreak in Pernambuco, Brazil: An Analysis of the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group Pregnancy Cohort.


Lobkowicz L, de Miranda-Filho D B, Ramos Montarroyos U, Martelli C M T, Barreto de Araújo T V, De Souza W V, Bezerra L C A, Dhalia R, Marques ETA, Clemente N S, Webster J, Vaughan A, Webb EL, Brickley EB, de Alencar Ximenes R A
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Apr 11.
PMID: 35405646.


Co-circulation of arthropod-borne viruses, particularly those with shared mosquito vectors like Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV), is increasingly reported. An accurate differential diagnosis between ZIKV and CHIKV is of high clinical importance, especially in the context of pregnancy, but remains challenging due to limitations in the availability of specialized laboratory testing facilities. Using data collected from the prospective pregnancy cohort study of the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group, which followed up pregnant persons with rash during the peak and decline of the 2015-2017 ZIKV epidemic in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, this study aims to describe the geographic and temporal distribution of ZIKV and CHIKV infections and to investigate the extent to which ZIKV and CHIKV infections may be clinically differentiable. Between December 2015 and June 2017, we observed evidence of co-circulation with laboratory confirmation of 213 ZIKV mono-infections, 55 CHIKV mono-infections, and 58 sequential ZIKV/CHIKV infections (i.e., cases with evidence of acute ZIKV infection with concomitant serological evidence of recent CHIKV infection). In logistic regressions with adjustment for maternal age, ZIKV mono-infected cases had lower odds than CHIKV mono-infected cases of presenting with arthralgia (aOR, 99% CI: 0.33, 0.15-0.74), arthritis (0.35, 0.14-0.85), fatigue (0.40, 0.17-0.96), and headache (0.44, 0.19-1.90). However, sequential ZIKV/CHIKV infections complicated discrimination, as they did not significantly differ in clinical presentation from CHIKV mono-infections. These findings suggest clinical symptoms alone may be insufficient for differentiating between ZIKV and CHIKV infections during pregnancy and therefore laboratory diagnostics continue to be a valuable tool for tailoring care in the event of arboviral co-circulation.