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Front Neurol


Changes in EEG Activity Following Live -Score Training Predict Changes in Persistent Post-concussive Symptoms: An Exploratory Analysis.


A specific variant of neurofeedback therapy (NFT), Live -Score Training (LZT), can be configured to not target specific EEG frequencies, networks, or regions of the brain, thereby permitting implicit and flexible modulation of EEG activity. In this exploratory analysis, the relationship between post-LZT changes in EEG activity and self-reported symptom reduction is evaluated in a sample of patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS). Penalized regressions were used to identify EEG metrics associated with changes in physical, cognitive, and affective symptoms; the predictive capacity of EEG variables selected by the penalized regressions were subsequently validated using linear regression models. Post-treatment changes in theta/alpha ratio predicted reduction in pain intensity and cognitive symptoms and changes in beta-related power metrics predicted improvements in affective symptoms. No EEG changes were associated with changes in a majority of physical symptoms. These data highlight the potential for NFT to target specific EEG patterns to provide greater treatment precision for PPCS patients. This exploratory analysis is intended to promote the refinement of NFT treatment protocols to improve outcomes for patients with PPCS.