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Papers of the Week

2022 May

Respirol Case Rep



Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-negative children.


Palamit A, Tovichien P, Amornsitthiwat R
Respirol Case Rep. 2022 May; 10(5):e0945.
PMID: 35386580.


Even though tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is usually found in HIV-positive patients receiving antiviral treatment, it can also occur in HIV-negative patients especially if they have risk factors. We report a unique case of TB-IRIS in an immunocompetent child presenting with new onset of pleuritic chest pain after receiving anti-TB drugs. TB-IRIS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in case of clinical deterioration or appearance of new typical lesions despite appropriate anti-TB treatment for more than 2 weeks in the absence of persistently active TB or any other alternative causes. This will prevent physicians from misdiagnosis as superimposed infections, treatment failure or TB relapse.