Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a common and devastating complication in patients with diabetes. The mechanisms mediating DNP are not completely elucidated, and effective treatments are lacking. A-fiber sensory neurons have been shown to mediate the development of mechanical allodynia in neuropathic pain, yet the molecular basis underlying the contribution of A-fiber neurons is still unclear. Here, we report that the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 177 (GPR177) in A-fiber neurons drives DNP via WNT5a-mediated activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) ion channel. GPR177 is mainly expressed in large-diameter A-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and required for the development of DNP in mice. Mechanistically, we found that GPR177 mediated the secretion of WNT5a from A-fiber DRG neurons into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which was necessary for the maintenance of DNP. Extracellular perfusion of WNT5a induced rapid currents in both TRPV1-expressing heterologous cells and nociceptive DRG neurons. Computer simulations revealed that WNT5a has the potential to bind the residues at the extracellular S5-S6 loop of TRPV1. Using a peptide able to disrupt the predicted WNT5a/TRPV1 interaction suppressed DNP- and WNT5a-induced neuropathic pain symptoms in rodents. We confirmed coexpression in human DRG neurons and WNT5A secretion in CSF from patients with DNP. Thus, our results reveal a role for WNT5a as an endogenous and potent TRPV1 agonist, and the GPR177-WNT5a-TRPV1 axis as a driver of DNP pathogenesis in rodents. Our findings identified a potential analgesic target that might relieve neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes.